In male infertility , sperm factors are very important, such as abnormal sperm too much. According to experts, teratospermia refers to a disease in which the proportion of abnormally shaped sperm is too high. Deformed sperm do not have normal motility and conception ability, which is one of the main causes of male infertility. In normal semen, in addition to normal sperm, there is also a certain proportion of deformed sperm. The latest WHO manual stipulates that the reference range for the normal shape of human sperm is 4%. However, relevant data from assisted reproductive technology projects show that if normal Morphological sperm is less than 15%, low in vitro fertilization rate.
According to experts, in routine semen analysis, sperm morphology determination is the most valuable for predicting sperm fertilization ability, but sperm morphology evaluation is not easy to be accurate and stable, because human sperm itself has morphological diversity. , and the morphological detection is biased by the subjective influence of the tester. The detection and counting of deformed sperm should be carried out according to the staining method and counting method recommended in the WHO standard, and the standard of normal sperm morphology and the classification standard of deformed sperm should be strictly followed.
There are many cases of sperm deformity, the first one is abnormal sperm head. The main structure of sperm head is condensed nucleus and acrosome. Abnormalities in the chromatin maturation process can lead to vacuolar defects in sperm nuclei located in the head.
The other is abnormalities in the neck and midsection of the sperm. Separation of the head and tail is a common abnormality of the connecting segment of sperm, which is also called decapitated sperm. Studies have shown that most decapitated sperm have normal tail structures; a small number of such sperm have residual connecting segments surrounded by cytoplasm, or lack of middle segments; some sperm have regular connecting segments and The middle segment, or the remaining linking segment, connects to the main segment.
Another is abnormal sperm flagella. There are mainly two manifestations: primary ciliary dyskinesia and fibrous sheath dysplasia. The former is an autosomal recessive genetic disease . Such patients often present with bronchiectasis, chronic sinusitis, situs inversus, and male infertility. The inability of the cilium or flagella structure to vibrate vigorously is the main cause of the disease.